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Best CBD Company Reviews: Top CBD Oil Brands & Manufacturers [2021]
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Best CBD Oils For Dogs With Arthritis (2021 Reviewed)

As dogs get older they suffer from all the aches & pains that come along with it.

Learn how pet owners are helping their dogs manage arthritis symptoms with CBD.

Article By
Daily CBD , last updated on October 19, 2021

If you notice your dog tires easily, is reluctant to jump onto the couch, or seems stiff as they move around — they may be suffering from canine arthritis

CBD oil is a popular treatment for canine arthritis because it targets three separate aspects of the condition — it blocks pain, inhibits inflammation, and promotes faster recovery of joint tissue.

In this article, you’ll learn how to use CBD oil for dogs with arthritis, including dosage, safety, and how to incorporate CBD oil with other non-medical treatments for greater benefit. 

Let’s start by covering the best CBD oils for dogs with arthritis in 2021. 

Best CBD Oils For Dogs With Arthritis: 

1. Royal CBD Pet Oil — Best CBD Oil For Dogs With Arthritis

Royal CBD makes three full-spectrum pet oils to choose from depending on the size of your dog — 125, 250, and 500 mg. Each bottle contains 1 oz of high-grade CBD extract in an MCT oil base.

Most CBD companies charge a markup on their CBD pet oils — surprisingly, Royal CBD actually charges slightly less for their pet lineup. 

These oils are produced from organic hemp, processed with supercritical CO2, and mixed with a dog-friendly bacon flavor. They have won several awards for the excellent cannabinoid and terpene profiles contained inside and are one of our go-to CBD oil brands to use with dogs across the board. 

All Royal CBD oils are third-party tested prior to sale.

Use the code DAILY10 at checkout for 10% off your order. 

2. Honest Paws Relief Oil — CBD Dog Oil With Turmeric

Honest Paws makes CBD products exclusive for use with pets. They carry three different CBD oil formulas for dogs, depending on the symptoms you’re looking to support. 

For joint pain, I recommend this turmeric-infused, full-spectrum, organic Mobility Oil

The addition of turmeric in this formula adds extra painkilling and anti-inflammatory benefits. Turmeric has been shown to block an enzyme known as COX, which is a key inflammatory mediator. Blocking this enzyme is the same mechanism drugs like Aspirin use to alleviate pain and inflammation from arthritis. 

You can get these oils in three different potencies to match the size of your dog — 125, 250, and 500 mg per bottle. 

Enter the code DAILY CBD for 15% off your order

3. Austin & Kat (Bakko’s Hip & Joint Formula) — CBD Dog Oil With Omega-3

$64.95
Austin & Kat

Austin & Kat — Bakko’s Hip & Joint Formula

5 / 5

Total CBD: 450 mg
Potency: 15 mg/mL
Cost per mg CBD: $0.14
Extract Type: Full-Spectrum

Austin & Kat specializes in making CBD products for pets. They carry an impressive lineup of dog and cat-friendly CBD products. Some of their products are broad-acting, while others — like this hip and joint formula — are specifically formulated with other ingredients to support a specific symptom. 

I love this formula for supporting arthritis in dogs because it contains several other joint-supportive ingredients. Inside the bottle, you’ll find ingredients such as Ceylon cinnamon, astaxanthin, green-lipped mussels, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate — all of which offer additional joint-supportive benefits. 

This CBD comes in one potency with 450 mg per bottle (15 mg/mL), which is enough to cover the dosage requirements of dogs up to 60 lbs.

All Austin & Kat oils are third-party tested and come with free shipping on orders above $99.

4. Medterra Pet Joint Support — Best CBD Dog Treats For Joints

$29.99
Medterra

Medterra CBD Pet Joint Support 20 Soft Chew Treats

4.5 / 5

Total CBD: 200 mg
Potency: 10 mg per Treat
Cost per mg CBD: $0.15
Extract Type: CBD Isolate
THC Content : 0.0%

These pet joint support treats by Medterra are specifically formulated to promote faster recovery in the joint tissue and reduce pain and inflammation.

Each chew contains a combination of CBD, glucosamine, MSM, and chondroitin — all four have proven benefits towards supporting both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis in dogs.

These chews contain 10 mg of CBD, which makes them more optimized for smaller dogs (under 30 lbs).

5. Lazarus Naturals Pet CBD Oil — CBD Oil With Omega-3

$12.00 – $38.00
Lazarus Naturals

Lazarus Naturals Pet CBD Oil Tincture 15 – 60 mL

4.33 / 5

Total CBD: 225 – 900 mg
Potency: 15 mg/mL
Cost per mg of CBD: $0.04 – $0.05
Extract Type : Full-spectrum
THC Content: 0.0%

Lazarus Naturals is one of the largest CBD companies in the United States. They carry products in virtually every category imaginable, including this CBD pet oil. 

This pet oil comes with a full-spectrum hemp extract and salmon oil — which is rich in joint-supportive omega-3 fatty acid.

You can buy these unflavored CBD pet oils in potencies ranging from 300 to 900 mg per bottle and prices as low as $12. 

The Benefits of CBD Oil For Dogs With Arthritis

Arthritis is an inflammatory condition involving the gradual destruction of your dog’s joint tissue. This causes pain and a loss of mobility. 

CBD is a popular support option for arthritis for its ability to block pain and decrease inflammation. It offers direct improvement in symptoms.

Long-term use of CBD oil may be able to reverse or slow the progression of arthritis.

The main benefits of CBD for arthritis include: 

  • Reduces inflammation in the joints
  • Alleviates chronic pain 
  • Promotes faster recovery of joint tissue
  • Alleviates other side effects of the condition (anxiety, insomnia, depression)

1. CBD Decreases Joint Inflammation

CBD oil blocks several key inflammatory mediators involved with both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in animals [4].

Less inflammation means less pain, slower disease progression, and better mobility. 

Most conventional pharmaceutical arthritis treatments target inflammation too. 

2. CBD Alleviates Pain 

CBD has been shown to interrupt pain signals traveling to the brain [5]. If the signals don’t reach the brain or are mute prior to arriving, your dog will experience less pain.

Your dog should start to feel the painkilling effects of CBD within about 45 minutes of application. 

This benefit offers an immediate improvement to your dog’s quality of life.

3. CBD Promotes The Regeneration of Joint Tissue

CBD has been shown to possess tissue-regenerative effects [1]. 

A fundamental aspect of arthritis is the degeneration of cartilage and chondrocytes in the joints.

As these tissues break down, your dog experiences more pain, more inflammation, and a gradual loss of mobility. The protective cartilage that allows the two bones to move against each other smoothly begins to break down. If enough cartilage is lost, bone will rub directly against bone — causing a great deal of pain for your pup.

CBD oil helps by supporting the regeneration of cartilage, chondrocytes, and other important cell structures that maintain the health and function of the joint and prevent this from happening.

CBD works to speed healing by regulating a series of receptors that make up the endocannabinoid system (ECS for short). This system is involved with regulating cellular recovery throughout the body.

4. CBD Alleviates Common Side-Effects of Arthritis

Looking beyond the condition itself, arthritis can affect other aspects of your dog’s life.

Severe arthritis limits mobility, preventing dogs from being able to run around and play. Depression is common among dogs with chronic arthritis.

The pain from the condition can make it hard to sleep, and in some cases can make your dog feel nauseous.

Severely inflamed joints can spill over into other areas of the body — causing inflammatory conditions in the gut, brain, and cardiovascular system.  

CBD oil is an excellent supplement to reduce anxiety, improve sleep quality, alleviate nausea, and protect the internal organs from the consequences of inflammation.

How Do I Use CBD Oil With My Dog?

There are two ways of using CBD oil with dogs we’re going to cover — hide it in their food (the easy method) or drop it directly in their mouth (the alternative for picky dogs).

A) Mix CBD With Your Dog’s Food

If you’re using a pet oil that contains a dog-friendly flavor, you can usually get away with placing a few drops in with your dog’s regular food. Most dogs won’t even notice.

To reduce the chances of your dog refusing the oil mixed in with their food, it helps to find a pet oil that’s flavored with something like bacon, chicken, fish, beef, or peanut butter. Avoid CBD oils that are overly sweet-tasting, as dogs generally don’t like these flavors. 

B) The Vet Method

Some pets are pickier and will refuse the meal if anything feels “different” about it. For these dogs, you may need to follow the more direct route.

Open your dog’s mouth by gripping the sides near the corners of the mouth. Drop the dose directly into their mouth, and hold their snout closed for a few seconds to force them to swallow it. If you skip this last part your dog will likely just spit the CBD oil out on the floor.

This method won’t hurt your dog, but they will no doubt find it annoying. This is how most oral medications are given to dogs as recommended by vets. 

What’s The Dose of CBD Oil For Dogs With Arthritis? 

The dose of CBD for dogs depends on their weight.

It’s relatively simple — bigger dogs need more CBD, smaller dogs need less. You can use our chart below to find the optimal starting dose for your dog based on their weight.

Other factors can influence the dose as well — such as genetic factors, the severity of their condition, and the state of their digestive health.  

The best research currently available for the use of CBD oil in dogs with arthritis found that 2 mg of CBD for every kilogram of body weight was effective for managing arthritis symptoms.

CBD Dosage Chart For Dogs With Arthritis

Dog Size & WeightLow-DoseHigh DoseRecommended CBD Oil Potency
Very Small Dogs (2-15 lbs)1 – 7 mg2 – 14 mg150 mg CBD Oil
Small Dogs (15-30 lbs)7 – 14 mg14 – 28 mg300 mg CBD Oil
Medium Dogs (30-60 lbs)14 – 27 mg28 – 54 mg300 – 600 mg CBD Oil
Large Dogs (60-150 lbs)27 – 60 mg54 – 120 mg600 – 1500 mg CBD Oil

How to Optimize Your Dog’s Dose

The dosage information above is only meant to help you find the starting dose for your dog. Your dog may need slightly more, or slightly less depending on how they respond.

Once you’ve given your dog some CBD oil, wait to see how it affects them. You may need to give them this dose for a few days to monitor any changes.

  1. If you notice your dog is sleeping a lot more than usual — reduce the dose by 0.5 mg per day until it goes away
  2. If you don’t notice any improvement — increase the dose by 0.5 mg per day until you do
  3. If your dog starts vomiting — stop using CBD oil altogether

Arthritis is a chronic condition, which means it took a long time to develop and will therefore take a long time to improve. Be patient, keep tabs on how your dog is doing, and eventually, they will start to improve.

Is CBD Oil Safe to Use With Dogs?

Several high-quality clinical trials have been published on the use of CBD products in dogs and other animals (usually rats) [2, 6, 7].

All of these studies have concluded that CBD is safe to use with dogs.

Some of this research found that doses as high as 8 mg per kilogram had little to no adverse effects [2]. This is the equivalent of 250 mg for a dog the size of a golden retriever. To put this in perspective, the average dose for a dog of this size is around 30 mg, and a high dose is considered to be around 60 mg. 

So even if you give your dog a little too much, it’s not likely to cause any long-term consequences.

With that said, side effects are still possible when using CBD products with dogs, so it’s important to monitor your animal closely for the first few days after starting them on CBD. 

The most common side effects of CBD in dogs include:

  • Lethargy
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness

CBD Pet Oil vs. CBD Dog Treats

There are two ways pet owners are giving CBD to their dogs — CBD oil for dogs or pre-formulated CBD dog treats

In truth, both are great options, and both work for managing arthritis in dogs

CBD Pet Oils

The advantages of a CBD pet oil is that it’s cheaper (especially for large dogs) and the dose can be tweaked much more easily.

A high-quality CBD pet oil usually costs around $0.12 per mg of CBD.

The downside is that oils are a little bit more involved (you have to measure each dose individually) and picky dogs may try to avoid getting their daily dose.

CBD Pet Treats

Treats are better for mild symptoms or smaller dogs that may only need 5 or 10 mg of CBD at a time. It’s possible to find treats with much higher doses as well (20 mg or higher),

CBD treats offer other benefits due to the effects of additional ingredients in the formula. For example, you can get specific CBD pet treats for managing joint pain from companies like Royal CBD (Active Treats) or Honest Paws (Relief Bites).

These products contain other ingredients that help with arthritis, such as turmeric or boswellia. 

The downside of dog treats is that they can be expensive.

Dog treats cost around $0.20 per mg of CBD.

A 20 mg dose of CBD dog treats will cost around $4.00. The equivalent 20 mg dose with CBD pet oil works out to around $2.40.

CBD Oil For Dogs & Arthritis: What The Research Says

The best evidence for the use of CBD oil for dogs with arthritis comes from a study done by the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University [2]. This randomized, double-blind, clinical trial involved 16 dogs who were given two doses of CBD by their owner per day. 

There were two doses used in this study — 2 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg of a full-spectrum CBD oil. All dogs received both doses for four weeks, each in randomized order (double-blinded). 

The results of this study were very promising. Dog owners reported dramatic improvements in their dogs’ symptoms with both treatments, and blood tests showed a systemic reduction in inflammatory markers.

There were no side effects reported throughout the course of the study for either dose. 

Other animal studies involving rodents have shown that CBD attenuated nerve pain and inflammation caused by osteoarthritis [1]. Researchers concluded that CBD may be a safe therapeutic agent to treat osteoarthritis pain. This study involved rats, but the effects can be directly applied to dogs, which share many similarities in terms of joint function and inflammatory response. 

Canine Arthritis: Signs & Symptoms

Canine arthritis is the most common joint disease in dogs. Estimates suggest nearly 80% of dogs over the age of 8 experience symptoms of arthritis [8].

Joint pain is most common in older dogs — with early symptoms appearing around middle-age.

Some breeds are more predisposed to developing arthritis than others — such as german shepherds, golden retrievers, bulldogs, mastiffs, and chihuahuas. 

Arthritis can affect any joint but tends to be most common in large joints such as the hips or hind knees. 

Risk Factors For Canine Arthritis Include: 

  • The age of your dog (old-age is a primary risk factor)
  • The weight of your dog (arthritis is common in overweight dogs)
  • The size of your dog (large breeds are more likely to develop arthritis)
  • Injuries (even injuries that have fully healed can lead to arthritis later in life)
  • Poor nutrition (low omega-3 or mineral intake can lead to arthritis)
  • Infections or diseases (tick-borne diseases are a common cause of arthritis)

Signs Your Dog May Have Arthritis

Arthritis has a slow progression. You’ll notice symptoms gradually starting to worsen over the course of several months or years. As your dog gets older, symptoms may become more apparent.

You may not notice your dog has arthritis until it’s progressed to a late stage. The earlier you can spot the condition, the better the treatment outcome.

Starting your dog on CBD oil or other joint-supportive treatments early can slow the progression of the disease.

You may even be able to reverse the condition if you catch it early enough. 

Here are five signs of arthritis in dogs

  1. Difficulty getting up from sitting or lying down
  2. Less interest in going for walks or playing
  3. Limping or signs of tenderness while walking
  4. Whimpering when touching the joints
  5. Difficulty going upstairs or onto furniture

Conventional Treatments for Canine Arthritis

The most common treatment for dogs with arthritis is NSAIDs — which is a class of anti-inflammatory drugs that include Aspirin.

Dogs usually receive specialty veterinary versions of these drugs such as Novox, Rimadyl, Deramaxx, or Metacam. 

While these drugs work to reduce symptoms, they come with a list of negative side effects as well. 

A systematic review using 35 canine models of arthritis and 29 clinical trials with dogs found that NSAIDs resulted in side effects in 55% of the studies [3]. The most common and severe side-effects by far were digestive system dysfunction — including vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. 

Other medications are also used, such as steroid injections, opioid painkillers, or surgery. 

The Most Common Medical Treatments For Arthritis In Dogs Include: 

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)  Novox, Rimadyl, Deramaxx, or Metacam
  • Glucocorticoids Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, or Betamethasone
  • Antihistamines Zyrtec
  • Opioid painkillers — Buprenorphine, Morphine, Meperidine, or Oxymorphone
  • Surgery — joint replacements or reconstruction

Most of these treatments target inflammation directly — which is also the primary mechanism of action for CBD.

Side-Effects of Conventional Treatments For Dogs

  • NSAIDs — Nausea & vomiting, Diarrhea, Fatigue, Kidney Damage, Ulcers
  • Antihistamines — Nausea & vomiting, Delirium, Sedation, Poor appetite, Fatigue, Heart arrhythmias, Hyperactivity
  • Glucocorticoids — Urinary tract infections, Lowered immunity, Muscle weakness, Nausea & vomiting
  • Opioid Painkillers — Fatigue, Confusion, General malaise, Overdose

Can I Give CBD Oil To My Dog If They’re Taking Other Medications?

While rare, there are some CBD drug interactions to be aware of if your pet is taking other medications.

Avoid giving your pet CBD oil if they’re on a course of antibiotics or are taking antipsychotic medications (rarely used in dogs). You should also avoid administering CBD oil to dogs prior to surgery.

Most medications won’t interact negatively with CBD and you should be able to use them in combination without any issues.

With that said, always speak with your vet before giving your dog CBD oil if they’re on any prescribed medications.

It’s also wise to do an “allergy test” when using CBD for the first time. This involves giving your pet a very small dose (1–2 drops) of oil first to see if they have any severe reactions to the oil.

Alternative Arthritis Treatments For Dogs

The best way to treat arthritis is through a multifaceted, holistic approach.

The idea is to avoid relying on any singular treatment. Instead, focus on taking several steps to support your dog’s condition on top of CBD. This includes factors like diet, exercise, weight management, and more.

For example, CBD oil offers excellent symptom relief, but if the cause of the problem isn’t removed (such as poor nutrition or obesity), the condition will continue to worsen.

Taking steps like placing your dog on a weight loss regimen and supplementing or changing your dog’s food will go much further than relying solely on CBD oil. 

Top non-medical treatments to use alongside CBD oil for canine arthritis:

  1. Exercise — even short walks each day can improve blood flow to the joint and speed healing
  2. Food — give your dogs organic or whole food that’s rich in omega-3 fatty acids
  3. Other health supplements — supplements like glucosamine, omega-3 oil, or chondroitin sulfate can dramatically improve your dogs’ joint health
  4. Weight Control — maintaining a healthy weight will help slow the progression of arthritis in dogs
  5. Stress-Reduction — dogs feel stressed too, which contributes to inflammation and pain. Taking your dog on long walks, spending time playing, or doing other activities they enjoy can dramatically reduce stress levels and boost healing.

List Of Natural Health Supplements for Canine Arthritis (Other Than CBD)

There are many health supplements available for dogs that can be combined with CBD to offer more well-rounded support for arthritis.

These supplements work by promoting the regeneration of cartilage in the joints, providing supplemental doses of omega-3 fatty acids, or alleviating chronic inflammation. 

Here are 7 of the best supplements to combine with CBD oil for arthritis in dogs: 

  1. Glucosamine — glucosamine has been shown to support the health of chondrocytes (cells that maintain the protective cartilage in joints)
  2. Green-lipped mussels — New Zealand green-lipped mussels are a popular health supplement for dogs due to the high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids
  3. Fish or krill oil — fish and krill oils are an excellent natural source of omega-3, which is important for regulating inflammation in the joints
  4. Shark cartilage — cartilage from sharks, provides all the necessary precursors dogs need to build cartilage tissue in the joints
  5. Chondroitin sulfate — this compound is one of the primary nutritional precursors dogs need to repair cartilage
  6. Boswellia — otherwise known as frankincense, this supplement is a potent anti-inflammatory for the type of inflammation involved with arthritis
  7. Turmeric — turmeric is another powerful anti-inflammatory supplement that works through similar mechanisms as NSAID medications, but without the side-effects

All of these supplements are safe to use alongside CBD oil in dogs and work to boost the joint-supportive and anti-arthritis benefits of CBD oil. 

How to Shop For CBD Pet Oil

Not all pet oils are going to be effective for managing arthritis. The CBD industry is unregulated, which means there are a lot of low-quality products being passed off as “high-quality oils.”

Here are 4 steps to follow to avoid ordering ineffective CBD pet oils:

A) Check For Third-Party Testing

Third-party testing is the ultimate way a CBD company can provide transparency for its products.

Here’s how it works:

A CBD company sends a sample of each batch to an independent lab. The lab will run various tests on the sample to determine the potency of CBD, measure THC levels, assess terpene ratios, and check for common contaminants.

The results are then sent back to the manufacturer who can decide whether they want to publish the results or not.

Always look for these tests. If a company doesn’t have them it means they’re either not ordering them or refuse to post them publically — both are red flags. Why would a company avoid this if they have nothing to hide?

B) Look For Oils That Contain Other Joint-Supportive Ingredients

CBD oil is an excellent supplement for managing arthritis in dogs — but it’s not the only thing that works for this. The best CBD oils for dogs with arthritis contain other ingredients as well.

The most common additions include turmeric or boswellia. These are both powerful anti-inflammatory herbs that bolster the anti-arthritic profile of CBD.

Check out the Austin & Kat Bakko’s Hip & Joint Formula to see this in action.

C) Choose CBD Pet Oils That Use Dog-Friendly Flavors

CBD oil has a particular taste to it that dogs usually try to steer clear from. They prefer flavors of bacon, chicken, beef, or peanut butter. The grassy hemp flavor of CBD oil just isn’t what a dog desires.

Save yourself the grief of having your dog turn their nose up at CBD oil by finding products that add dog-friendly flavors to its oils.

Royal CBD is a good example of this. This CBD pet oil comes in a delicious bacon flavor by default.

D) Read Company Reviews

It’s always a good idea to do a little bit of research before you buy so you know what you’re getting yourself into.

You can check out our vendor reviews or see what others are saying on places like Reddit.

Red flags to watch out for include:

  • More negative reviews than positive
  • 100% positive reviews (no company will realistically have a 100% positive rating, this is a good indicator of fake reviews)
  • No reviews or customer feedback whatsoever (this is another indicator of a scam CBD company)

E) Make Sure The Oil is THC-Free

THC (delta 9 THC) is the active ingredient in marijuana that makes users high. It’s not a good idea to give THC to dogs so you should always check to make sure the products you’re buying are either THC-free or contain less than 0.3% THC (for full-spectrum products).

Most CBD pet oils are made from CBD isolate, which contains 0% THC by default. Others are made from broad-spectrum, which include a variety of hemp-derived cannabinoids, but have the THC removed.

You can also find full-spectrum CBD pet oils that maintain the natural cannabinoid profile of the hemp extract. These products contain THC but are safe to use because the maximum concentration is 0.3% or less. At this concentration, these oils are completely non-psychoactive.

Key Takeaways: CBD Oil For Dogs With Arthritis

CBD oil has many benefits to offer towards arthritis in dogs. It blocks pain, reduces inflammation, promotes the regeneration of cartilage in the joints, and ameliorates common side effects of the condition (such as anxiety, depression, or insomnia). 

The best CBD oil for dogs is made from a full-spectrum extract, offers potency options appropriate for the size of your dog, and comes in dog-friendly flavors. 

Always speak with your vet before using CBD products with dogs if they have any underlying medical conditions and are using prescription medications. 

CBD oil works best for arthritis when combined with other diet and lifestyle changes directed around weight loss, adequate nutrition, and exercise. 

References Cited In This Article

  1. Philpott, H. T., O’Brien, M., & McDougall, J. J. (2017). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain, 158(12), 2442.
  2. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., … & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, safety, and clinical efficacy of cannabidiol treatment in osteoarthritic dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165.
  3. Monteiro‐Steagall, B. P., Steagall, P. V. M., & Lascelles, B. D. X. (2013). Systematic review of non-steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug‐induced adverse effects in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27(5), 1011-1019.
  4. Hammell, D. et al. 2016 Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain‐related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European Journal of Pain 20: 936-948.
  5. McCarberg, B. H. (2007). Cannabinoids: their role in pain and palliation. Journal of pain & palliative care pharmacotherapy, 21(3), 19-28.
  6. McGrath, S., Bartner, L. R., Rao, S., Packer, R. A., & Gustafson, D. L. (2019). Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 254(11), 1301-1308.
  7. Gamble, L-J. et al. 2018 Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5: 165.
  8. Anderson, K. L., O’Neill, D. G., Brodbelt, D. C., Church, D. B., Meeson, R. L., Sargan, D., … & Collins, L. M. (2018). Prevalence, duration and risk factors for appendicular osteoarthritis in a UK dog population under primary veterinary care. Scientific reports, 8(1), 1-12.

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